A comprehensive overview of gonorrhea covering subjects as symptoms, diagnostics, research, causes and pictures
Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhea.
Gonorrhea is contracted during sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal and oral) with an infected partner. A pregnant woman can transmit the disease to the baby during birth.
Gonorrhea can be transmitted at any time by a person infected with Neisseria gonorrhea, whether or not that person has symptoms. A sick person is contagious until treatment is taken.
If a person has had gonorrhea is not protected from future infection. A new exposure to gonorrhea causes a new infection even though before a treatment was taken and the disease has been cured. Although condom is used in sexual relationship with an infected person, the risk of gonorrhea infection is very high. And while your partner does not present the symptoms, he can transmit the disease onwards before he knows he has it. Also, if you had gonorrhea in the past does not mean you can not contracted again, so be careful.
Gonorrhea risk factors:
Preventing STDs is much easier to do than treat them. Keeping in mind the gonorrhea causes, a first step is to use protection in every sexual contact. Also, to reduce the risk of illness, you should discuss with your partner to find out which is the risk of contacting a sexually transmitted disease. Avoid involvement in relationships with several partners. Stop any sexual contact when you feel you have symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases or if you are taking a treatment for such a disease.
Gonococcus contamination - gonococcus infection spreading (STD) is caused in most cases by direct contamination from the sick person, through sexual contact, an indirect way to contract it through different objects being extremely rare. The most important source of infection is the patients with suspicious forms of gonorrhea and which can infect other people. The gonorrhea forms are more common in women (50% of cases) than men (10% of cases).
Pathogenesis and causes
It seems that only 30% of individuals become infected after a single exposure to the gonorrhea pathogen. For urethral infections, the pathogen inoculum must be large enough; the more the virulence factors are more aggressive, the amount of inoculum needed to cause infection is lower. There are some natural factors that can confer resistance to infection, such as urethral colonization with Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis and some species of lactobacillus.
Since the vast majority of iron in the body is linked to certain proteins, the remaining free iron is insufficient to support the growth and multiplication of the gonococci; in this situation, gonococci elaborates a protein with a role in releasing the iron bound with the proteins of the host. The reasons for which the gonococci cause infections only to the human host, is that they can connect only to the human lactoferrin transferrin. Iron is vital for the growth and development of the gonococcus. If gonococci strains have the ability to extract iron from lactoferina, then is most likely they will cause asymptomatic infections.
There are gonococci which shows resistance to normal human serum; this serum contains immunoglobulin of IgG class, able to fix some complement factors; because the protein of III surface is similar to proteins belonging to other bacterial species, it is possible that the antibodies are heading against protein III, has been formed as a result of previous exposure to cross-reactive protein, belonging to other microbial species.
There are a number of mechanisms dependent of oxygen, which aim to gonococci destruction after they were phagocytes of the neutrophil leukocytes; however, a small number of gonococci are able to survive and reproduce. Clearly, the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices is a factor that favors the spread of gonococcus infection to blood level, and the menstrual flow predisposes to gonococcus bacteria.