A comprehensive overview of gonorrhea covering subjects as symptoms, diagnostics, research, causes and pictures
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease. It is a bacterial infection of the male urethra and the female urethra, the cervix, or both in women. Gonorrhea can affect the rectum, anus, neck or pelvic organs and rarely the conjunctiva (the membrane that lines the eyelid and the eye surface).
The risk of this disease is higher in women than in men. Gonococcus infection is commonly transmitted by vaginal, anal or oral way. Children will become infected at birth if the mothers are infected.
There are reported each year approximately 1 million cases of gonorrhea transmission, while at least the same number of cases of gonorrhea transmission are not reported. On average, a man will be infected at the every 4th sexual contact with an infected woman, while a woman is infected at the every 2nd sexual contact with an infected man.
Incidence and prevalence of gonorrhea transmission
The incidence and prevalence of the disease, depends directly on age, gender, sexual orientation, race, social status, marital status, residence and not at least depends of the education level of the individual - all these factors are factors that influence sexual behavior, how we care about our healthy, how we protect and it also influence the tracking of the disease, and also the access to specialized medical services. Among those sexually active, the most cases of gonorrhea transmission were reported among teenagers, people from poor living environments, to those without an education, to those who live in crowded urban centers, but also to the unmarried; all these social categories play a central role in the transmission of gonorrhea in a population.
Gonorrhea is still associated with cocaine and practicing prostitution; the highest incidence of the disease is among adult men; for young women, asymptomatic, which present the risk of transmitting the disease, in some countries is realized routine cultures of the bacteria; these methods can be also applied in the cases of the women in juvenile detention centers or those in the centers for drug addicts - who often can present a combined infection, gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Fortunately, in recent years gonorrhea incidence is constantly decreasing.
More important than performing routine cultures are preventive measures, because gonorrhea is often transmitted by asymptomatic individual or which presents minimal symptoms which have been ignored since the debut. Frequently, the symptomatic persons were found to be infected recently by an asymptomatic carrier; the asymptomatic carriers should be diagnosed and treated properly to prevent the occurrence of new cases of infection. If an individual is infected, his sexual history is particularly important because allows the identification of all sexual contacts, and treating them accordingly.
Moreover, epidemiological studies have revealed the existence of interrelationships between gonorrhea transmission and HIV infection and transmission; gonorrhea increase the risk of contracting HIV infection; gonococcus urethritis stimulates elimination of HIV infected cells in urethral exudates, to all HIV-positive men; this urethral discharge will diminish and then will disappear completely after treatment and cure of urethritis. HIV infection, increases the risk of reinfection with Gonococcus and increases the risk for complications.
Clinical manifestations depend largely on location of the infection, the duration of the infection, the virulence of the infecting strain, and the absence or presence of infection dissemination. It has not yet been fully established the importance of the inoculum size, and neither the significance of the co-infection with Chlamydia or other pathogens, in terms of the severity of the clinical manifestations.